LEARNING GUIDE TO:
THE RIGHT STUFF
One of the Best! This movie is on TWM's short list of the best movies to supplement classes in United States History, High School Level.Age: 12+; MPAA Rating -- PG; Drama; 1983; 193 minutes; Color; Available from Amazon.com.
Description: This movie shows the recruitment, training, and space flights of the first U.S. astronauts. The film shows how the mantle of having "the right stuff" shifted from the USAF test pilots to the Mercury Astronauts during a time when the Soviet Union reigned supreme in the space race. The movie is based on Tom Wolfe's non-fiction book of the same title.
Rationale for Using the Movie: Although the specific dialogue and some minor events have been fictionalized, events of any interest are accurately recounted in the film.
Objectives/Student Outcomes Using this Learning Guide: Students will learn a bit of U.S. history and research and write about space exploration as it has advanced from its early days as well as the Cold War mentality that drove the intensity of the program.
Possible Problems: Minor. There is a substantial amount of profanity in this movie and references to immoderate sexuality on the part of some married astronauts.
LEARNING GUIDE MENU
SUGGESTIONS FOR USING THE RIGHT STUFF IN THE CLASSROOM
Enrichment Worksheets are a TWM innovation containing questions designed to get students thinking. Questions are focused on comprehension, application, analysis, syntheses or evaluation. Questions can be answered in class or as homework, as quickwrites, journal entries, formal or informal essays, or research papers. For a version of the Worksheet in word processing format, click here.
In 1957 the USSR launched Sputnik 1, becoming the first nation to send a space satellite into orbit around the earth. The United States had been working towards space exploration before this time, but was shocked by the sudden ascendancy of Russian technology.
The Soviet Union led the way in the early era of space exploration. Sputnik, launched in October, 1957, was an aluminum sphere 23 inches in diameter weighing 184 lbs. The next month, the Soviets launched Sputnik II, weighing 1,121 lbs and carrying a live dog. The first U.S. space satellite, Explorer I, weighed only 30 lbs and was not launched until January 31, 1958.
Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet Cosmonaut, was the first man in space. He made a one orbit flight in April, 1961. The Soviets had the first multiple orbit flight, the first multi-person flight, the first space walk, and the first transfer of crews between docked spacecraft. The Soviets had a space station in orbit from 1971 until 2001. Their last, the Space Station Mir, remained serviceable through the collapse of the Soviet Union and into the era of cooperation between the U.S. and Russian space programs.
There have been four U.S. manned space programs, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo and the Shuttle. This movie details the selection and training of the seven Mercury Astronauts. Alan Shepherd made the first U.S. spaceflight, a suborbital flight in May, 1961. John Glenn made the first U.S. orbital flight in February, 1962. All of the Mercury flights involved single astronauts. Gemini was a program in which two astronauts were on board the spaceship. Apollo was the effort to place a man on the moon which met with success in July, 1969 when Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin landed on the surface of the moon. After more than a decade, the U.S. beat the Russians to the moon and eventually surpassed the Soviets in the space race.
After Sputnik, the U.S. government poured money, not only into NASA and space science, but also into general scientific research of all kinds. The added investment allowed U.S. scientists to gain ascendancy in many fields of study.
Charles Elwood Yeager (1923 - ) was the best and most famous U.S. test pilot. In World War II he flew 64 missions over Europe and shot down 13 German aircraft. Before the sound barrier was broken, no one knew whether an airplane could be controlled once it passed the speed of sound. On October 14, 1947 Yeager was the first test pilot to break the sound barrier and survive. In 1953 he piloted the X-1 experimental rocket plane to a speed of 1,650 miles per hour, a world record. He flew almost every kind of plane in the military and flew as fast as Mach 3.2.
Although Yeager was the greatest test pilot of his time and an inspiration to all other pilots, he was passed over for the U.S. Mercury Astronaut Program. NASA wanted only college trained astronauts and Yeager had only a high school diploma. He continued his career in the Air Force, commanding the Aerospace Research Pilot School and, in 1968, the Fourth Tactical Fighter Wing. Yeager retired from the Air Force as a Brigadier General in 1975 but continued as a consultant, testing planes at one dollar per year. He finally stopped flying for the military in October of 2002 at the age of 79. After his formal retirement from the military he made commercials for products on television and wrote his autobiography.
Pilots who tested jet fighters underwent incredible risks and had very little control over their survival. They were required to "push the envelope" on the plane's capabilities. If they strayed over the edge they would probably die. Survival was a matter of luck. Yeager was their hero. They developed a saying that those who survived, like Yeager, "had the right stuff. "
At the end of WW II German engineers who had previously worked for the Nazis were recruited by both the Soviet Union and the United States. The lead engineer recruited by the U.S. was Werner Von Braun (1912-1977) who had been in charge of developing the V-2 rocket used to bombard England. After helping put the first U.S. satellite into orbit in 1958, Von Braun was instrumental in the development of the Saturn Rocket used in the Apollo Moon landing program. He also pioneered the concept of the Space Shuttle. Von Braun was naturalized as a U.S. citizen in 1955. His contributions to the United States were immense and he received many honors from the United States Government. However, it should be noted that under current international law, Von Braun would probably have been considered a war criminal for making weapons that could only inflict random death and destruction to a civilian population. Note that many of the Allied tactics in World War II, such as the fire bombing of Dresden and Tokyo, might not be tolerated today. For a telling parody of the policy of using engineers who had formerly served the Nazis, listen to the lyrics of the song entitled Werner von Braun by comedian and math professor Tom Lehrer. For the official U.S. government view, see the NASA biography of Von Braun. [Kris – set these out as HTML links]
QUESTION #1: Do you agree that the U.S. government should spend billions on a space exploration program when we have a pressing need for money at home to improve our schools and update our infrastructure such as roads, bridges, hospitals, etc.?
In the early days of the U.S. manned space flight program, there was an engineering/political struggle between the seven Mercury astronauts, who had been pilots, and NASA engineers, led by Von Braun and other recruits from the German rocket programs, over whether or not the spaceships would have manual controls. The engineers wanted to rely on computers and deny the astronauts the ability to steer the spacecraft in emergency situations. The astronauts thought this made "spam in a can" and feared that they would be subject to ridicule by the community of test pilots. They were very uncomfortable having no control over the space capsules.
The astronauts used their unexpected personal popularity as the "champions" of the American people and the threat of going to the press to prevail in this dispute. This movie recounts part of that struggle. Experience proved that the astronauts were correct; several situations occurred in succeeding years in which spacecraft computers were damaged or failed and in which the astronauts survived only because they were able to manually steer their space capsules back to earth. See Apollo 13.
QUESTION # 2: What is the significance of the "high ground" in warfare?
Tom Wolfe, in his book The Right Stuff, contends that the astronauts became a modern equivalent of the "champions" of early human warfare. The Soviet success in putting satellites into orbit had shattered the assumption that the U.S. had superior technology that would protect it from Russian armaments. By 1959, not only did the Russians have the atomic bomb, but it looked as if they would soon control space and be able to deliver those bombs from this new high ground. It was frequently said and fervently believed that if the Russians won the "space race" the United States was doomed. Wolfe writes, at pages 122 and 123 that in this context, the U.S. and Russian manned space flight programs:
... [Brought] back to life one of the ancient superstitions of warfare. Single combat had been common throughout the world in the pre-Christian era and endured in some places through the Middle Ages. In single combat the mightiest soldier of one army would fight the mightiest soldier of the other army as a substitute for a pitched battle between the entire forces. In some cases the combat would pit small teams of warriors against one another. Single combat was not seen as a humanitarian substitute for wholesale slaughter until late in its history. That was a Christian reinterpretation of the practice. Originally it had a magical meaning. In ancient China, first the champion warriors would fight to the death as a "testing of fate," and then the entire armies would fight, emboldened or demoralized by the outcome of the single combat. Before Mohammed's first battle as the warrior-prophet, the Battle of Badr, three of Mohammed's men challenged the Meccans to pick out any three of their soldiers to fight in single combat, proceeded to destroy them with all due ceremony, whereupon Mohammed's entire force routed the entire Meccan force. In other cases, however, the single combat settled the affair, and there was no full-scale battle, as when the Vandal and Aleman Armies confronted each other in Spain in the fifth century C.E. They believed that the gods determined the outcome of single combat; therefore, it was useless for the losing side to engage in a full-scale battle. The Old Testament story of David and Goliath is precisely that: a story of single combat that demoralizes the losing side. The gigantic Goliath, with his brass helmet, coat of mail, and ornate greaves, is described as the Philistine "champion" who comes forth to challenge the Israelites to send forth a man to fight him; the proposition being that whoever loses, his people will become the slaves of the other side. Before going out to meet Goliath, David -- an unknown volunteer -- is given King Saul's own decorative armor, although he declines to wear it. When he kills Goliath, the Philistines regard this as such a terrible sign that they flee and are pursued and slaughtered. Mr. Wolfe notes that the public adored the astronauts, once they actually made it into space. Through their skill and willingness to risk their lives, they were the men who would protect the nation and redeem our national honor. See for example, Wolfe's description of the ticker tape parade in Manhattan for John Glenn after the first U.S. orbital flight. While Glenn's flight didn't bring us close to the Russians in the space race, it gave us our first hope that we had a chance against the Russians.People were crying, right out in the open, as soon as they laid eyes on John, ... [T]here were people hanging over the railings ... and they were crying and waiving little flags and pouring their hearts out." ... It was cold as hell, seventeen degrees, but the streets were mobbed. There must have been millions of people out there, packed from the curbings clear back to the storefronts, and there were people hanging out of all the windows, particularly along lower Broadway, where the buildings were older and they could open the windows, and they were filling the air with shreds of paper, every piece of paper they could get their hands on. ...[End of Worksheet]
Last updated March 9, 2013.
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