Buddha said that he was a teacher/therapist who recognized the cause of life’s pain and despair and then proposed the cure: changing our perspective on life and the world by recognizing that pain and despair was separate from the self. When this realization is complete, a person becomes enlightened and attains a state in which the boundary of the finite self is extinguished. An enlightened person becomes one with all things, a condition beyond the limitations of body and of mind; beyond thought, feelings and will.
Buddha did not claim to be divine. He was not a savior, but rather a teacher and therapist. Buddhists do not worship the Buddha, instead, they revere him. Enlightenment is not a mystical encounter with God. Rather it is an exercise in becoming more fully human by directly realizing the nature of reality.
Buddha, the Enlightened One, was born in Lumbini, Nepal in the sixth century B.C.E. He was the son of the leader of a minor kingdom but early on showed interest in reflection and meditation. It is difficult to separate the reality of his life from the myth, but it is clear that he left marriage and an indulgent life for meditation and the search for Enlightenment. He rejected the Hindu caste system as well as Hindu asceticism. In about the year 528 B.C.E. Buddha experienced the Great Enlightenment. A short time thereafter, he preaching his first sermon revealing the way of salvation from suffering, the gist of Buddhism. Buddha continued to teach, gathering disciples around him for 45 years until he died from eating spoiled food at the age of 80.
Buddha’s teachings have influenced the lives of millions of people for more than 2,500 years. He established a religion that is one of the primary religions of the world. He rejected metaphysical speculation. He required that religious thinking be logical, a concept previously absent from Oriental religious thought. His revolt against the extremes of Hindu hedonism, asceticism, and spiritualism, and his rejection of the caste system deeply influenced Hinduism itself.
Buddhism is based upon a recognition of the “Four Noble Truths:”
(1) life is imperfect and leads to suffering (examples: birth, illness, aging, death, being tied to what one abhors, being separated from what one loves); in other words, life is not permanent;
(2) the will to individual personal fulfillment is the cause of life’s imperfection and suffering, i.e., a man, no matter how charitable, will be more concerned with his children getting enough to eat than with others getting enough to eat;
(3) the cure to life’s imperfection/impermanence/suffering is to overcome the will to individual personal fulfillment; and
(4) the EIGHT FOLD PATH is the way to overcome the will to individual personal fulfillment.
Buddha approached religion as a therapy to cure the inevitable tragedy of life rather than an effort to ascertain cosmological truth.
THE EIGHT FOLD PATH is a rigorous course of training designed to form habits that release the individual from impulse, ignorance of self and the will to individual personal fulfillment. To embark on the Path a person must first associate himself with those who have experience following the Path, preferably a teacher who has found Enlightenment and a group of people seeking to attain Enlightenment. The eight steps are:
1. RIGHT KNOWLEDGE (belief in the Four Noble Truths);
2. RIGHT ASPIRATION (intense determination to transcend separateness and identify with the welfare of all);
3. RIGHT SPEECH (an examination of speech to determine the motives that lead to statements that are untrue and to ensure that statements are accurate and clear);
4. RIGHT ACTION (an examination of behavior and deeds to determine motives so that we only act with selflessness and charity; this leads at a minimum to the Five Precepts: (i) do not kill (strict Buddhists extend this to animals and are therefore vegetarians); (ii) do not steal; (iii) do not lie; (iv) do not be unchaste; (v) do not drink intoxicants; these are only the beginning, and an observant Buddhist must act with selflessness and charity in all other matters as well;
5. RIGHT LIVELIHOOD (certain occupations are helpful in acting rightly and others make it almost impossible; the modern emphasis is that earning a living is a means to obtaining the necessities of life and not an end in itself);
6. RIGHT EFFORT (it takes tremendous effort to curb the will to individual personal fulfillment, reign in passions and eliminate evil states of mind);
7. RIGHT MINDFULNESS (continuous alertness and self-examination; the greatness of man is based upon his self-awareness);
8. RIGHT CONCENTRATION (an understanding that our true self is vastly more wonderful than we now realize and a passion for direct experience of its full reach).
The Eight Fold Path is not easy and traditionally it has been followed in a monastery into which the adherent goes for refuge. Tibetan Buddhism has a “refuge prayer:”
I go for refuge in the Buddha, the enlightened teacher; I commit myself to enlightenment;
I go for refuge in the Dharma, the spiritual teachings; I commit myself to the truth as it is;
I go for refuge in the Sangha, the spiritual community; I commit myself to living the enlightened life.
This film was partially inspired by the story of Sonam Wangdu (born 1992), the child of a Buddhist family from the U.S. and the great, great nephew of Deshun Rinposte III, a revered Lama of the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Today the two centers of the sect are in Seattle and Nepal. Deshun Rinposte rebuilt an important temple in exile in Katmandu. He predicted that he would be reborn in Seattle. Sonam Wangdu’s mother had dreams while she was pregnant that her son would be a great teacher. A leader of the Sakya sect also dreamed that Sonam Wangdu was the reincarnation of Deshun Rinposte. Sonam Wangdu is now living in a monastery in Katmandu and is studying to become the leader of his sect. It is reported by those that believe in the reincarnation, that at the child’s birth a golden light filled the delivery room, that the child was unusually compassionate with others, and that when taken to the room of Deshun Rinposte the child identified the Master’s chair.