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SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS FOR THE LONGEST DAY


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Helpful Background

Additional Discussion Questions:
      Subjects (Curriculum Topics)
      Social-Emotional Learning
      Moral-Ethical Emphasis
            (Character Counts)

Additional Assignments

Other Sections:
      Bridges To Reading
      Links to the Internet
      CCSS Anchor Standards
      Selected Awards & Cast
      Bibliography



Helpful Background:


In 1942, General Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander, had warned Germany to: "Beware the fury of an aroused democracy." On D-Day, June 6, 1944, the Allies mounted the largest amphibious assault in history and made good on Eisenhower's warning. The invasion force consisted of more than 5,000 ships, 1,200 warships and 13,000 airplanes. Some 90,000 U.S., British, Canadian, and Free French troops landed on the beaches of Normandy, while about 20,000 more came by parachute or glider. The invasion had been in preparation for a year.

Casualties turned out to be less than expected except at Omaha Beach, where strong German resistance and difficult seas resulted in about 2,000 U.S. casualties. By June 11, 1944, the Allied forces had linked up and made a solid front, ensuring that they would not be thrown back into the sea.

The success of the Normandy invasion was crucial to the Allies. By the same token, defeating the invasion was vitally important to the Axis. Hitler is reported to have said: "The destruction of the enemy's landing is the sole decisive factor in the whole conduct of the war and hence in its final results." But the Germans couldn't stop the invasion. In 1943, they were fighting the Americans and British in Italy and the Mediterranean as well as the Russians in the East. The Atlantic Coastline from Holland to France was 6,000 kilometers. It could not be watched in all places. In short, the Germans were overextended.

The Allies, backed by the tremendous productive power of the U.S. and the men of the American and British armies, were not to be denied. Historian Doris Kearns Goodwin wrote:
Three weeks after D-day, one million men had been put ashore, along with an astonishing supply of 171,532 vehicles and 566,000 tons of supplies. "As far as you could see in every direction the ocean was infested with ships," Ernie Pyle [the great WW II war correspondent] observed, but when you walked along the beach, a grimmer picture emerged. "The wreckage was vast and startling." Men were floating in the water, lying on the beach; nearly nine thousand were dead. "There were trucks tipped half over and swamped ... tanks that had only just made the beach before being knocked out ... jeeps that had burned to a dull gray ... boats stacked on top of each other. On the beach lay expended sufficient men and mechanism for a small war. They were gone forever now." No Ordinary Time by Doris Kearns Goodwin, 1994, Simon & Schuster, New York, page 511, quoting from Pyle, Brave Men pp. 358, & 367 - 69.
Mr. Pyle was amazed that the Allies could afford these losses, but he realized that behind the men, the vehicles and the ships, were still more in preparation to overwhelm Germany.

Overall, the movie is quite accurate. The German High Command was extremely confused during the early hours of the invasion. Hitler indeed refused to commit Panzer reserves to the battle until the beachhead was already established. There are, however, some scenes in which poetic license takes the day. For example, in reality, the landings were more difficult than shown in the movie. Soldiers were dropped off in water over their heads and had to use life jackets to keep afloat until they reached the shore, where they collapsed with exhaustion. The Pegasus bridge had not been rigged for demolition. The German defenses on Omaha beach were not blown up and frontally assaulted as shown in the film. This was the original plan but the bulldozers and tanks which were to carry out the assault didn't make it to the beach. Junior officers and NCOs took charge of the situation, infiltrated their men behind the enemy fortifications, and took them from the rear.


Additional Discussion Questions:

Continued from the Learning Guide...

1.  If the invasion of Normandy had failed, and if the Germans had been able to halt the Allied offensives on the Eastern Front (Russia) and in the South (Italy), what weapon would have been used on Germany? Suggested Response: The U.S. would probably have used the atomic bomb, which was originally intended to be dropped on Germany. During the Second World War, the U.S. judged that Germany was a greater threat than Japan. For that reason the U.S. threw most of its resources and manpower into the war in Europe. As a result, Germany collapsed and was conquered before Japan, several months before the atomic bomb was ready. This fact saved Germany from being the first country to suffer from an attack in which nuclear weapons were used. See Learning Guide to "Fat Man and Little Boy".

2.  Why was it important for the Allies to win World War II?

3.  What was Joseph Stalin's position with respect to the Normandy invasion? Did he want it to go forward or did he want it delayed? Suggested Response: Stalin repeatedly pressured England and the U.S. to mount the invasion so that the Germans would have to divert men, supplies and equipment from the Eastern Front.

4.  Evaluate the film from the point of view of casting, performances, directing, and cinematography. Did anything bother you about the way in which the events in the film were presented? Would you have done it differently? Why? Similarly, what works best in the film? Explain why.

Additional Assignments


Continued from the Learning Guide...

See additional Assignments for use with any Film that is a Work of Fiction.

Social-Emotional Learning Discussion Questions


COURAGE IN WAR

1.  Would you have participated in the invasion of Normandy had you been a soldier in WW II?



Moral-Ethical Emphasis Discussion Questions (Character Counts)
(TeachWithMovies.com is a Character Counts "Six Pillars Partner"
and  uses The Six Pillars of Character to to organize ethical principles.)

Discussion Questions Relating to Ethical Issues will facilitate the use of this film to teach ethical principles and critical viewing. Additional questions are set out below.

TRUSTWORTHINESS

(Be honest; Don't deceive, cheat or steal; Be reliable -- do what you say you'll do; Have the courage to do the right thing; Build a good reputation; Be loyal -- stand by your family, friends and country)


1.  Where would we be without the sacrifices of the men who served in the armed forces during World War II?



Bridges to Reading:

There are hundreds of books suitable for middle school and junior high readers relating to WW II. Check with your librarian.



Links to the Internet:



Common Core State Standards that can be Served by this Learning Guide
(Anchor Standards only)


Multimedia: Anchor Standard #7 for Reading (for both ELA classes and for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Classes). (The three Anchor Standards read: "Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media, including visually and quantitatively as well as in words.") CCSS pp. 35 & 60. See also Anchor Standard # 2 for ELA Speaking and Listening, CCSS pg. 48.

Writing: Anchor Standards #s 1 - 5 and 7- 10 for Writing and related standards (for both ELA classes and for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Classes). CCSS pp. 41 & 63.

Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards #s 1 - 3 (for ELA classes). CCSS pg. 48.

Not all assignments reach all Anchor Standards. Teachers are encouraged to review the specific standards to make sure that over the term all standards are met.



Selected Awards, Cast and Director:


Selected Awards:  1962 Academy Awards: Best Black & White Cinematography, Best Special Effects; 1963 Golden Globe Awards: Best Black & White Cinematography; 1962 National Board of Review Awards: Ten Best Films of the Year; 1962 Academy Awards Nominations: Best Picture, Best Art Direction/Set Decoration (B&W), Best Film Editing.

Featured Actors:  John Wayne, Richard Burton, Red Buttons, Robert Mitchum, Henry Fonda, Robert Ryan, Paul Anka, Mel Ferrer, Edmond O'Brien, Fabian, Sean Connery, Roddy McDowall, Arletty, Curt Jurgens, Rod Steiger, Jean-Louis Barrault, Peter Lawford, Robert Wagner, Sal Mineo, Leo Genn, Richard Beymer, Jeffrey Hunter.

Director:  Ken Annakin.

Bibliography


In addition to web sites which may be linked in the Guide and selected film reviews listed on the Movie Review Query Engine, the following resources were consulted in the preparation of this Learning Guide:

  • Past Imperfect, Mark C. Carnes, Ed., Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1995. and Guts & Glory: Great American War Movies, Lawrence H. Suid, 1978, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.


Contributors: Thanks to Michael Turyn, Ph.D., Watertown, Massachusetts for suggestions on discussion questions.











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